Superconductivity: Basics and Applications to Magnets

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Fortunately, superconductors are starting to change things for the better, albeit extremely slowly.


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It's not surprising that low-temperature superconductors LTS are currently used much more than high-temperature superconductors HTS , simply because they've been around longer, are better understood, and for various reasons are usually easier to put to practical use. In the future, however, as scientists figure out how to achieve superconductivity at higher temperatures, in a wider range of materials, HTS is likely to become an increasingly exciting and lucrative technology. But that's enough about tomorrow—what's happening today?

The most widespread practical use for superconductors at the moment is in body scanners, based on a cunning bit of science called NMR nuclear magnetic resonance. When we direct an intense magnetic field at an atom , we can make its nucleus resonate wobble about and give off radio waves, just like a wine glass vibrates and "sings" if you sing near it at just the right frequency.

In a body scanner, superconducting magnets make the powerful magnetic field, which causes atoms inside the patient's body to give off radio waves. As the scanner spins around, it picks up these waves and turns them into an image of what's happening inside the patient's body, much as a radio telescope picks up patterns of radio waves to draw pictures of distant galaxies. This is called magnetic resonance imagery MRI and it currently uses low-temperature superconductors. Artwork: How an MRI scanner works. The patient lies on a platform 1 that moves into a huge ring containing the scanning equipment.

The scanner 2 beams energy into their body, causing the atoms inside it to vibrate and give off radio waves. These are picked up by the scanner and turned into an image on a computer screen 3. If charged particles like bits of atoms move through a magnetic field, they bend round in a curve.

Superconductivity: Basics and Applications to Magnets - R.G. Sharma - Google книги

We can use this to accelerate them to incredibly high speeds and energies so, when they collide, they smash apart and generate new particles that help to reveal the deeper structures from which atoms are built. The LHC, for example, uses over magnets made from a niobium-titanium alloy Nb-Ti cooled almost to absolute zero also types of low-temperature superconductors.

The magnetic field they produce measures 8. Engineers have been promising us floating trains that use magnetic levitation "maglev" since at least the s.


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One reason they've yet to take off literally and figuratively is that it's expensive and difficult to make conventional electromagnets that can lift a train into the air. Despite fervent research, maglev technology has barely made any impact on railroad travel so far.

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One exception is the Japanese SCMaglev system, which uses superconducting magnets to float trains and speed them along at up to kph mph. You can read more about this in our main article on linear motors which includes a box about Maglev.

Artwork: Traditional trains above run down rails on wheels; maglev trains below float above the rails on a magnetic field red produced with superconducting magnets. Maglev technology would be much more practical if superconductors worked at higher temperatures. Resistance certainly has its uses, but when it comes to making, transporting, and using electricity, it's very much the enemy: it's one of the reasons why a mere 20 percent of the energy in a fuel like oil or coal, burned in a power plant , actually does useful things inside your home.

Resistance explains why electricity has to be zapped along powerlines at such high voltages, making transmission much more difficult and dangerous than it would otherwise be. That could all be about to change. The basic technology we've been using to produce electricity is pretty much the same as it's been since the time of Edison and Tesla, at the end of the 19th century, but utility companies are now experimenting with both low- and high-temperature superconductors to make generators , powerlines, transformers , and power storage devices like flywheels that waste considerably less energy.

Superconductivity and Applications of Superconductors - Physics4students

And it's not just generators and powerlines that stand to benefit. Electronic devices use much smaller amounts of electricity, in what we might describe as a more "thoughtful" way. The flow of electrons isn't designed to carry energy, as such; rather, it's controlling things, timing other things, making decisions, or storing information. Here, too, superconductors have their uses. Computer designers, for example, have long been experimenting with devices called Josephson junctions , based on an effect discovered in by physicist Brian Josephson, where electrons "tunnel" from one superconducting material to another through a thin barrier made of a material that isn't superconducting.

Josephson junctions have been used to make ultrafast logic gates and extremely sensitive magnetism detectors called SQUIDs Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices , which are finding their way into all kinds of things from improved MRI brain scanners to super-sensitive submarine detectors. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use. Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. Woodford, Chris. What causes superconductivity? Which materials superconduct? High-temperature superconductors For many years, scientists assumed superconductivity could happen only at very low temperatures.

Uses of superconductors Superconductivity sounds cool, if you'll forgive the pun, but is it anything more than a neat physics party trick? Magnetic applications The most widespread practical use for superconductors at the moment is in body scanners, based on a cunning bit of science called NMR nuclear magnetic resonance. Electric applications Resistance certainly has its uses, but when it comes to making, transporting, and using electricity, it's very much the enemy: it's one of the reasons why a mere 20 percent of the energy in a fuel like oil or coal, burned in a power plant , actually does useful things inside your home.

Sponsored links. Simon and Schuster, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Cambridge University Press, Chapter XII "Superconductors", p. A good place to go next after reading my article. World Scientific, A good introductory text for high-school and college students and general adult readers with some scientific background.

Wiley-VCH, Superconductivity by K. Springer, A definitive two-volume reference, with an emphasis on high-temperature superconductors. Stanford scientists investigate if their new understanding of atomic vibrations could lead to higher-temperature superconductors—perhaps even, one day, at everyday, room temperature. Nobel-Prize-winning research is helping to shed light on high-temperature superconductivity. How superconductivity has revolutionized medical imaging. An impressive new demonstration of the Meissner effect by physicists at Tel Aviv University.

An audio interview with Professor David Cardwell of Cambridge University describes a new generation of high-temperature superconductors that can produce much larger magnetic fields.

How MRI Works

The high times of physics revisited by Paul Grant. BBC News, 5 March Recalls the excitement among the physics community following the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the s. Explains how NASA research is unlocking the amazing potential of high-temperature superconductors. The New York Times, May 29, Why is it proving so hard to explain high-temperature superconductivity?

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New Scientist, June 23, A simple explanation of high-temperature superconductors from the time of their discovery. The New York Times, March 8, Follow us.


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Rate this page Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. Room temperature about K would be ideal, but any temperature close to room temperature is relatively cheap to produce and maintain. There are persistent reports of s over K and some in the vicinity of K. Unfortunately, these observations are not routinely reproducible, with samples losing their superconducting nature once heated and recooled cycled a few times see [link].

High-temperature Superconductors

They are now called USOs or unidentified superconducting objects, out of frustration and the refusal of some samples to show high even though produced in the same manner as others. Reproducibility is crucial to discovery, and researchers are justifiably reluctant to claim the breakthrough they all seek. Time will tell whether USOs are real or an experimental quirk. The theory of ordinary superconductors is difficult, involving quantum effects for widely separated electrons traveling through a material. Electrons couple in a manner that allows them to get through the material without losing energy to it, making it a superconductor.

High- superconductors are more difficult to understand theoretically, but theorists seem to be closing in on a workable theory. The difficulty of understanding how electrons can sneak through materials without losing energy in collisions is even greater at higher temperatures, where vibrating atoms should get in the way. Section Summary High-temperature superconductors are materials that become superconducting at temperatures well above a few kelvin. The critical temperature is the temperature below which a material is superconducting.

Some high-temperature superconductors have verified s above K, and there are reports of s as high as K. Conceptual Questions What is critical temperature? Do all materials have a critical temperature? Explain why or why not. Not only is liquid nitrogen a cheaper coolant than liquid helium, its boiling point is higher 77 K vs. How does higher temperature help lower the cost of cooling a material? Explain in terms of the rate of heat transfer being related to the temperature difference between the sample and its surroundings. A section of superconducting wire carries a current of A and requires 1.

For it to be economically advantageous to use a superconducting wire, the cost of cooling the wire must be less than the cost of energy lost to heat in the wire. What is the resistance of a normal wire that costs as much in wasted electric energy as the cost of liquid nitrogen for the superconductor?

Skip to content Increase Font Size. Frontiers of Physics. Learning Objectives Identify superconductors and their uses. Discuss the need for a high-T c superconductor. A graph of resistivity versus temperature for a superconductor shows a sharp transition to zero at the critical temperature T c. High temperature superconductors have verifiable T c s greater than K, well above the easily achieved K temperature of liquid nitrogen.

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