None of the ITP communities of Suriname has State-recognised rights to either control or collaboratively manage the lands, territories and resources LTR that they depend on for subsistence or commercial sale. At least a quarter of the total households in Apoera and three quarters in Sandlanding are almost totally dependent on the natural economy for their livelihoods; no member of those households gains a steady income from paid employment.
This means that a large part of the income from sales of crabwood oil, gathered nuts, bush meat or fish is spent on food and other necessities for subsistence, health care or school supplies. In , the communities had to relocate their crabwood seed harvesting because an airstrip was built on the main harvesting site. If logging concessions were to be granted over the area from which nuts and seeds are currently harvested, then the commercially desirable Carapa timber trees will be felled.
The collection of Bertholletia excelsa and Caryocar nuciferum seeds are also currently carried out on an area of state domain that has been proposed to become a nature reserve. As noted earlier, commercial NTFP collection is prohibited within nature reserves. However, since the announcement of the proposed nature reserve in the s, there have been no follow-up actions. The terms of natural resource concession licences could, as in other countries, prohibit loggers from felling or damaging any species on which local communities have high dependence.
With regard to wildlife, hunters reported decreases in population sizes for all commercially harvested species. Currently, national hunting regulations focus on bag limits—the number of species that can be carried in a bag on a single trip. Within this system, a hunter could theoretically make three trips a day during the entire hunting season, carrying the maximum number of hunted animals each time. To avoid such a perverse outcome—increasingly possible as natural resources concessions increase in number in Suriname, consequently raising the number of potential hunters—government and local community representatives might co-develop rules for sustainable off-take of the most important game species per season, rather than per trip.
There are many replicable or adaptable examples from the US States and Canada of hunting rules, including tags issued for number of animals, tags or parts of tags to be retained until wildlife carcass is processed for sale, all tags and parts of tags to be returned to the issuing agencies for discharge and prevention of reuse [ 43 , 44 ]. Monitoring and enforcement of NTFP extraction rules are a major challenge and often costly [ 45 ]. As there is currently no effective monitoring system in place, the success of any rules will depend on the willing participation of the local communities who have the greatest stake in the long-term sustainability of the natural resources on which they depend.
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The Surinamese authorities might consider adopting the tried and tested rule of subsidiarity in which decision-making is delegated to the lowest effective level. Subsidiarity is considered desirable in natural resources management where the target resources are important for local livelihoods [ 46 ]. Collaborative monitoring of tags by paid local community members, recruited as representatives of government agencies, should precede the setting of Annual Allowable Cut AAC rules and would allow communities to have active roles in setting fact-based rules and monitoring their execution.
In addition, if both governmental authorities and local community members were to collaboratively calculate the superior long-term value of gathered NTFPs versus the one-time payment from the sale of a Carapa log, for example, both parties might be galvanised to protect the nut-bearing trees.
There are successful models detailing how this was done among Brazilian Amazonian communities [ 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ]. Turning to faunal offtake, our study has shown that the commercially most important fish—the endemic Potamotrygon boesemani —is harvested in the tributaries and main channel of the Corentyne River. While the Government of Suriname has total jurisdiction over this river which demarcates the international boundary with Guyana on the left bank, in practice the authorities only sporadically monitor the loggers, fishers and others from both Suriname and Guyana who traverse the river.
The artisanal Guyanese fishers, who are primarily coastlanders [non-Indigenous], operate under the constant threat of piracy, with at least 14 deaths recorded in recent years [ 51 ]. The failure of the authorities to bring piracy under control is a telling indicator of the open access condition of the Corentyne River.
The high prices paid for the Potamotrygon boesemani specimens in served as the trigger for its severe decline. Unsurprisingly, as our study showed, there were clear signs that the Potamotrygon boesemani population had been heavily reduced within a few months in If better practices were followed for capturing and transporting these Potamotrygon boesemani specimens, many deaths could be avoided. Firstly, the stings of the ray should not be cut off but instead covered with a piece of plastic tubing to protect humans from stings and to safeguard the rays from infections.
Secondly, fishermen and middlemen need proper tools to keep the water oxygenated and to lower the high mortality rates of captured rays during transportation. In order to prevent this population from further catastrophic decline or even extinction, the Government of Suriname might consider placing an immediate moratorium on the export of Potamotrygon boesemani. Such a moratorium should be simultaneous with in-village trials of oxygenation systems, described below, to build confidence and acceptance.
Consultations should take place with local communities to discuss and agree on specific steps to protect the remaining P. Inter-governmental discussions should also be held with the Guyanese governmental authorities and local communities, both to prevent stingray exports through Guyana and to develop a programme of collaborative management with the affected Guyanese communities. A moratorium would reduce the income of the local fishermen, which would cause dissatisfaction in the communities. However, the villagers have experience of the boom-and-bust cycles of other unregulated natural resources and are aware of the growing scarcity of P.
The continuation of the current unsustainable harvesting practices will soon result in zero stingray sales, which would be the most unwelcome outcome for both the communities and the Potamotrygon boesemani population. A sustainable program could be set up to breed Potamotrygon boesemani in controlled environments within the local communities. Knowledgeable stingray breeders could be contracted to teach the indigenous villages how to set up water tanks with the necessary equipment and explain the best conditions for breeding [ 52 ].
In this way, the communities could still earn money through the sales of P. As breeding programs have also been shown to be perfect fronts for the illegal trade of wild-caught specimens [ 53 ], the success of any such initiative is dependent on joint tagging, monitoring and reporting systems rather than on good faith compliance among all involved parties. To monitor whether the P.
Since long-term assessments are difficult to make in short-term scientific studies, monitoring can be done by the former harvesters [ 45 ], for which they should receive fair compensation. Besides keeping track of the natural population, further research should determine what the effects are on other natural elements of the Corentyne River basin.
These projects and studies could be funded by the government of Suriname which ratified the CBD. In order to comply with their obligations under Article 10C, States must ensure that national legislation and national policies account for and recognise, among others, Indigenous legal systems, corresponding systems of governance and administration, land and water rights and control over sacred and cultural sites [ 54 ].
If these recommendations regarding Potamotrygon boesemani conservation were followed, the government would fulfil its commitment to protect both biodiversity and indigenous practices. Local communities in West Suriname might develop a deeper bond with the Potamotrygon boesemani , the population would have a chance to recover and through breeding the species, and the communities could still earn an income. More broadly, collaborative management would build the necessary long-lasting relationships and agreements among local hunters and gatherers and governmental authorities on which sustainable natural resources management depend.
This study addressed important issues regarding land tenure and harvesting rights in West Suriname. Firstly, the communal forestlands currently allocated by the Surinamese State to the Indigenous communities of West Suriname for customary uses do not correspond to their traditional and ancestral territory.
All of the economically most important NTFPs are harvested outside the communal forest in lands over which the communities have no legal rights and only access rights. Consequently, local harvesters had to—and will again have to—relocate their NTFP gathering sites as a result of non-local or industrial developments.
Therefore, there is an urgent need for collaborative management arrangements among government, industries and communities, mediated by FPIC procedures. Such a process would safeguard the local economy of the indigenous communities. We did not identify any current negative influence from harvesting plant NTFPs. However, the level of offtake of the endemic stingray P. The nature and extent of legal and illegal trade in wildlife.
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Forest peoples, customary use and state forests: the case for reform. Download references. Huge thanks go to many individuals of the communities of Apoera and Sandlanding who have shared their knowledge and information to make this research possible. This research has been generously supported by the van Eeden Fonds, the Alberta Mennega Stichting and the Stichting dr. TvdB has done fieldwork, analysed the data and has done the major part of the writing. TvdA and JB have been editing and contributed to writing as well, as supervisors.
JT is co-author and reviewer. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Tinde R. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The crabwood seeds are collected from the forest floor starting in March. After the seeds have boiled for a couple of hours, they will be stored to dry. Then, the paste is left to drain for a week, after which it has to be massaged thrice a day. These processes are constantly repeated until there are no more fresh seeds to be found on the forest floor.
Crabwood oil is solely made by women. Crabwood seed collection. Marcelle Alpin collects crabwood seeds on the forest floor in the weekends. Crabwood seed harvest. Her husband Cyril Henry helps to gather seeds. Prepare crabwood seeds for boiling. Julian helps Marcelle to load all the crabwood seeds into a huge bowl.
After adding leaves from a certain plant, the seeds are ready to boil. Prepare boiled seeds for drying. Fungal growth on dried crabwood seeds. When orange fungi appear on the dried seeds, they are ready to crack open with a knife, one by one. Paste from seed kernels. The inner paste from the cracked seeds is attached together and left to drain for about a week. Manual kneading of kernel paste. Separation of oil from crabwood kernel paste. The oil that has dripped out of the paste is removed and stored as crabwood oil. Crabwood kernel paste for oil production.
The book explores the evolution of sentiments regarding the potential of NTFPs in promoting options for sustainable multi-purpose forest management, income generation and poverty alleviation. Based on a critical analysis of the debates and discourses it employs a systematic approach to present a balanced and realistic perspective on the benefits and challenges associated with NTFP use and management within local livelihoods and landscapes, supported with case examples from both the southern and northern hemispheres. This book covers the social, economic and ecological dimensions of NTFPs and closes with an examination of future prospects and research directions.
See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview This book provides a comprehensive, global synthesis of current knowledge on the potential and challenges associated with the multiple roles, use, management and marketing of non-timber forest products NTFPs.
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