He was scripted to say:. I bring with me a message of peace. We know this is a time of difficulty; we would like it to be a time of opportunity. We know that some of the things we do and say sound threatening and hostile to you. The same is true for us. The two governments needed to transcend that distrust. It is the path of negotiation. To say that Reagan wanted to negotiate trivializes his approach. You are starting your term as general secretary.
Ronald Reagan is starting his second term as president. President Reagan is ready to work with you. He was ready. He thought the Soviet Union was an economic basket case. They are part of the puzzle, important parts. Yet they were present at other times during the Cold War, and it had neither ended nor been won. What was different now? It was his sensibility, empathy, conviction, skill, charm, and self-confidence. Learning that the Soviets were insecure and genuinely frightened, he tried to insert this understanding in his handwritten letters to Chernenko before the Soviet leader died.
This empathy subsequently infused his meetings with Gorbachev. Although Reagan wanted armaments to cast shadows and bolster his negotiating posture, he also grasped Soviet perceptions of SDI. The deliberations of the National Security Council after do not reveal officials designing a strategy to win the Cold War, break up the Soviet Union, or eradicate communism. Instead, they reveal officials who were struggling to shape a negotiating strategy that would effectuate arms reductions.
They reveal a president pushing hard for real arms cuts. They reveal a president who feared nuclear war, believed in SDI, and wanted to share it. They reveal a president who desired to abolish nuclear weapons. President, that would be the most massive technical transfer the Western world has ever known. We have to do something now. Reagan was not very good at getting his advisers to do things they bickered over or did not want to do. But Reagan was good, indeed superb, at dealing with people. He worked hard at it, prepared for his talks, grasped the rhythm of negotiations, and understood the value of stubborn patience.
Reagan engaged Gorbachev in a way no American leader had previously engaged a Soviet leader in the history of the Cold War. Of course, he was dealing with a special, new type of Soviet leader. It took intuition and courage. Nor is it clear that his Democratic foes would have seized the opportunity as he did. Even had they tried, it is not likely that they could have orchestrated the same type of political support for engagement with the Soviet leader.
And his Soviet interlocutors knew it. Reagan had the trust of the American people, Gorbachev believed. If the president struck a deal, it would stick. Reagan provided the incentive for Gorbachev to forge ahead. Gorbachev needed a partner to tamp down the arms race and end the Cold War so that he could revive socialism inside the Soviet Union.
Gorbachev wanted to cut military expenditures, accelerate the economy, and improve Soviet living conditions. By reconfiguring Soviet foreign policy, championing conventional as well as strategic reductions in arms, and retrenching from regional conflicts, Gorbachev hoped to find the time and space to integrate the Soviet Union into a new world order and a common European home that would comport with Soviet economic needs and security imperatives. Gorbachev sensed that Reagan was seeking not to win the Cold War but to end it.
He recognized that Reagan wanted arms cuts, believed in nuclear abolition, and sincerely championed human rights and religious freedom. But Gorbachev did not think that these matters endangered Soviet power and security. He felt that Reagan behaved as a very moral person. Gorbachev was right. He and his advisers were not discussing ways to win the Cold War or to break up the Soviet Union. At meetings, they occasionally expressed confidence that they had the Soviets on the run, but far more often they remonstrated about the constraints Congress imposed on defense spending and acknowledged that Soviet economic problems, as bad as they were, were not likely to cause a Soviet collapse or even a rebalancing of military power.
Their discussions implied an understanding that, at best, they might reduce tensions; mitigate chances of nuclear conflict; manipulate the Soviets into restructuring their forces; and prompt a contraction of Soviet meddling in Central America, southern Africa, and parts of Asia. Nonetheless, Reagan not only encouraged his advisers to integrate strategic defense and the elimination of ballistic missiles into their overall planning, he also hectored them to move forward to prepare a strategic arms-reduction treaty that he could sign.
He still distrusted the Soviets and wanted to negotiate from strength. And he still prodded Gorbachev to advance human rights and religious freedom. But during his last years in office Reagan and his closest advisers rarely discussed victory in the Cold War. Although these conditions that have come to define victory in the Cold War were not expected when he left office, Reagan nonetheless took tremendous pride in what he had accomplished.
He sought peace through strength and strove to avoid a nuclear confrontation. He aspired to abolish nuclear weapons and tried to check Soviet expansion while engaging Soviet leaders. He showed empathy, displayed goodwill, and appreciated the changes Gorbachev was making. He hoped to tamp down the Cold War rather than win it. By doing all these things, Reagan reassured Gorbachev that Soviet security would not be endangered as Gorbachev struggled to reshape Soviet political, economic, and social institutions.
In , long after he left power, Gorbachev attended a seminar in London where academics blithely condemned Reagan as a lightweight. The professors had it all wrong, Gorbachev interjected. Slowly, he approached the casket, extended his right hand, and gently rubbed it back and forth over the Stars and Stripes. The non-aligned Indonesian government of Sukarno was faced with a major threat to its legitimacy beginning in , when several regional commanders began to demand autonomy from Jakarta.
After mediation failed, Sukarno took action to remove the dissident commanders. They were joined by many civilian politicians from the Masyumi Party , such as Sjafruddin Prawiranegara , who were opposed to the growing influence of the communist Partai Komunis Indonesia party. Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received arms, funding, and other covert aid from the CIA until Allen Lawrence Pope , an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon in April The central government responded by launching airborne and seaborne military invasions of rebel strongholds Padang and Manado.
By the end of , the rebels were militarily defeated, and the last remaining rebel guerilla bands surrendered by August In British Guiana , the leftist People's Progressive Party PPP candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially administered election in , but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution.
Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Viet Minh rebels at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu , the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam. In the Geneva Conference , peace accords were signed, leaving Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam and a pro-Western administration in South Vietnam at the 17th parallel north. Between and , Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it.
Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East-West competition. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America.
The period after was marked by serious setbacks for the Soviet Union, most notably the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, beginning the Sino-Soviet split. Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev criticized him in , and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge.
After this, Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance, but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal. On the nuclear weapons front, the United States and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other. This culminated in the Apollo Moon landings , which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War. In Cuba , the 26th of July Movement , led by young revolutionaries Fidel Castro and Che Guevara , seized power in the Cuban Revolution on 1 January , toppling President Fulgencio Batista , whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration.
Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista's fall, but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Castro during the latter's trip to Washington, DC in April, leaving Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the meeting in his place. In January , just prior to leaving office, Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. By the early s, the Soviet approach to restricting emigration movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. The Kennedy administration continued seeking ways to oust Castro following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, experimenting with various ways of covertly facilitating the overthrow of the Cuban government.
Significant hopes were pinned on a covert program named the Cuban Project , devised under the Kennedy administration in Khrushchev learned of the project in February ,  and preparations to install Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba were undertaken in response. Alarmed, Kennedy considered various reactions. He ultimately responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade, and he presented an ultimatum to the Soviets.
Khrushchev backed down from a confrontation, and the Soviet Union removed the missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba again. The Cuban Missile Crisis October—November brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before. In , Khrushchev's Kremlin colleagues managed to oust him, but allowed him a peaceful retirement.
In the course of the s and s, Cold War participants struggled to adjust to a new, more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer divided into two clearly opposed blocs. The Vietnam War descended into a quagmire for the United States, leading to a decline in international prestige and economic stability, derailing arms agreements, and provoking domestic unrest.
America's withdrawal from the war led it to embrace a policy of detente with both China and the Soviet Union. This raised oil prices and hurt Western economies, but helped Russia by generating a huge flow of money from its oil sales. As a result of the oil crisis, combined with the growing influence of Third World alignments such as OPEC and the Non-Aligned Movement , less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to pressure from either superpower.
Under President John F.
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Kennedy , US troop levels in Vietnam grew under the Military Assistance Advisory Group program from just under a thousand in to 16, in Johnson broad authorization to increase U. The USSR discouraged further escalation of the war, however, providing just enough military assistance to tie up American forces. The Tet Offensive of proved to be the turning point of the war. Despite years of American tutelage and aid the South Vietnamese forces were unable to withstand the communist offensive and the task fell to US forces instead.
Tet showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war and giving rise to what was referred to as the Vietnam Syndrome , a public aversion to American overseas military involvements. Nonetheless operations continued to cross international boundaries: bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam as supply routes , and were heavily bombed by U. De Gaulle protested at the strong role of the United States in the organization and what he perceived as a special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom.
In a memorandum sent to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan on 17 September , he argued for the creation of a tripartite directorate that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and the United Kingdom, and also for the expansion of NATO's coverage to include geographical areas of interest to France, most notably French Algeria , where France was waging a counter-insurgency and sought NATO assistance.
In , a period of political liberalization took place in Czechoslovakia called the Prague Spring. An " Action Program " of reforms included increasing freedom of the press , freedom of speech and freedom of movement , along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods , the possibility of a multiparty government, limitations on the power of the secret police,   and potential withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. In September , during a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party one month after the invasion of Czechoslovakia , Brezhnev outlined the Brezhnev Doctrine , in which he claimed the right to violate the sovereignty of any country attempting to replace Marxism—Leninism with capitalism.
During the speech, Brezhnev stated: . When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries. The doctrine found its origins in the failures of Marxism—Leninism in states like Poland, Hungary and East Germany, which were facing a declining standard of living contrasting with the prosperity of West Germany and the rest of Western Europe.
Under the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration , which gained power after the assassination of John F. Kennedy , the U. In Indonesia, the hardline anti-communist General Suharto wrested control of the state from his predecessor Sukarno in an attempt to establish a "New Order". From to , with the aid of the United States and other Western governments,      the military led the mass killing of more than , members and sympathizers of the Indonesian Communist Party and other leftist organizations, and detained hundreds of thousands more in prison camps around the country under extremely inhumane conditions.
In Chile , the Socialist Party candidate Salvador Allende won the presidential election of , becoming the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in the Americas. The Pinochet regime would go on to be one of the leading participants in Operation Condor , an international campaign of political assassination and state terrorism organized by right-wing military dictatorships in the Southern Cone of South America that was covertly supported by the US government. The Middle East remained a source of contention.
Egypt, which received the bulk of its arms and economic assistance from the USSR, was a troublesome client, with a reluctant Soviet Union feeling obliged to assist in both the Six-Day War with advisers and technicians and the War of Attrition with pilots and aircraft against pro-Western Israel. According to historian Charles R. Tripp , the treaty upset "the U. It appeared that any enemy of the Baghdad regime was a potential ally of the United States.
Around June , Somali troops occupied the Ogaden and began advancing inland towards Ethiopian positions in the Ahmar Mountains. Both countries were client states of the Soviet Union ; Somalia was led by self-proclaimed Marxist military leader Siad Barre , and Ethiopia was controlled by the Derg , a cabal of military generals loyal to the pro-Soviet Mengistu Haile Mariam , who had declared the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia in The counteroffensive was planned at the command level by Soviet advisers attached to the Ethiopian general staff, and bolstered by the delivery of millions of dollars' of sophisticated Soviet arms.
During the Vietnam War, North Vietnam used border areas of Cambodia as military bases , which Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk tolerated in an attempt to preserve Cambodia's neutrality. Following Sihanouk's March deposition by pro-American general Lon Nol , who ordered the North Vietnamese to leave Cambodia, North Vietnam attempted to overrun all of Cambodia following negotiations with Nuon Chea , the second-in-command of the Cambodian communists dubbed the Khmer Rouge fighting to overthrow the Cambodian government. After taking power and distancing himself from the Vietnamese,  Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot killed 1.
The invasion succeeded in deposing Pol Pot, but the new state would struggle to gain international recognition beyond the Soviet Bloc sphere, despite the previous international outcry at the Pol Pot regime's gross human rights violations, and it would become bogged down in a guerrilla war led from refugee camps located on the border with Thailand. Following the destruction of Khmer Rouge, the national reconstruction of Cambodia would be severely hampered, and Vietnam would suffer a punitive Chinese attack. As a result of the Sino-Soviet split , tensions along the Chinese—Soviet border reached their peak in , and United States President Richard Nixon decided to use the conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War.
Although indirect conflict between Cold War powers continued through the late s and early s, tensions were beginning to ease. These aimed to limit the development of costly anti-ballistic missiles and nuclear missiles. Meanwhile, Brezhnev attempted to revive the Soviet economy, which was declining in part because of heavy military expenditures. Between and , the two sides also agreed to strengthen their economic ties,  including agreements for increased trade. Other agreements were concluded to stabilize the situation in Europe, culminating in the Helsinki Accords signed at the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in Kissinger and Nixon were "realists" who deemphasized idealistic goals like anti-communism or promotion of democracy worldwide, because those goals were too expensive in terms of America's economic capabilities.
They realized that Americans were no longer willing to tax themselves for idealistic foreign policy goals, especially for containment policies that never seemed to produce positive results. Instead Nixon and Kissinger sought to downsize America's global commitments in proportion to its reduced economic, moral and political power.
They rejected "idealism" as impractical and too expensive, and neither man showed much sensitivity to the plight of people living under Communism. Kissinger's realism fell out of fashion as idealism returned to American foreign policy with Carter's moralism emphasizing human rights, and Reagan's rollback strategy aimed at destroying Communism.
In the s, the KGB, led by Yuri Andropov , continued to persecute distinguished Soviet personalities such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov , who were criticising the Soviet leadership in harsh terms. Although President Jimmy Carter tried to place another limit on the arms race with a SALT II agreement in ,  his efforts were undermined by the other events that year, including the Iranian Revolution and the Nicaraguan Revolution , which both ousted pro-US regimes, and his retaliation against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in December.
The term second Cold War refers to the period of intensive reawakening of Cold War tensions and conflicts in the late s and early s. Tensions greatly increased between the major powers with both sides becoming more militaristic. Within months, opponents of the communist government launched an uprising in eastern Afghanistan that quickly expanded into a civil war waged by guerrilla mujahideen against government forces countrywide. By mid, the United States had started a covert program to assist the mujahideen.
Distrusted by the Soviets, Amin was assassinated by Soviet special forces in December A Soviet-organized government, led by Parcham's Babrak Karmal but inclusive of both factions, filled the vacuum. Soviet troops were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan under Karmal in more substantial numbers, although the Soviet government did not expect to do most of the fighting in Afghanistan. As a result, however, the Soviets were now directly involved in what had been a domestic war in Afghanistan. Carter responded to the Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II treaty from the Senate , imposing embargoes on grain and technology shipments to the USSR, and demanding a significant increase in military spending, and further announced that the United States would boycott the Summer Olympics in Moscow.
He described the Soviet incursion as "the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War".
In January , four years prior to becoming president, Ronald Reagan bluntly stated, in a conversation with Richard V. Allen , his basic expectation in relation to the Cold War. What do you think of that? Reagan labeled the Soviet Union an " evil empire " and predicted that Communism would be left on the " ash heap of history ," while Thatcher inculpated the Soviets as "bent on world dominance. It hurt the Soviet economy, but it also caused ill will among American allies in Europe who counted on that revenue.
Reagan retreated on this issue. By early , Reagan's anti-communist position had developed into a stance known as the new Reagan Doctrine —which, in addition to containment, formulated an additional right to subvert existing communist governments. Pope John Paul II provided a moral focus for anti-communism ; a visit to his native Poland in stimulated a religious and nationalist resurgence centered on the Solidarity movement that galvanized opposition and may have led to his attempted assassination two years later.
Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland in response. Soviet investment in the defense sector was not driven by military necessity, but in large part by the interests of massive party and state bureaucracies dependent on the sector for their own power and privileges. Soon after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, president Carter began massively building up the United States military. This buildup was accelerated by the Reagan administration, which increased the military spending from 5. Tensions continued to intensify as Reagan revived the B-1 Lancer program, which had been canceled by the Carter administration, produced LGM Peacekeeper missiles,  installed US cruise missiles in Europe, and announced the experimental Strategic Defense Initiative , dubbed "Star Wars" by the media, a defense program to shoot down missiles in mid-flight.
After Reagan's military buildup, the Soviet Union did not respond by further building its military,  because the enormous military expenses, along with inefficient planned manufacturing and collectivized agriculture , were already a heavy burden for the Soviet economy. The airliner had violated Soviet airspace just past the west coast of Sakhalin Island near Moneron Island , and the Soviets treated the unidentified aircraft as an intruding U.
The incident increased support for military deployment, overseen by Reagan, which stood in place until the later accords between Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. American domestic public concerns about intervening in foreign conflicts persisted from the end of the Vietnam War. Meanwhile, the Soviets incurred high costs for their own foreign interventions. Although Brezhnev was convinced in that the Soviet war in Afghanistan would be brief, Muslim guerrillas, aided by the U.
A senior U. State Department official predicted such an outcome as early as , positing that the invasion resulted in part from a "domestic crisis within the Soviet system. It may be that the thermodynamic law of entropy has We could be seeing a period of foreign movement at a time of internal decay". By the time the comparatively youthful Mikhail Gorbachev became General Secretary in ,  the Soviet economy was stagnant and faced a sharp fall in foreign currency earnings as a result of the downward slide in oil prices in the s.
An ineffectual start led to the conclusion that deeper structural changes were necessary, and in June Gorbachev announced an agenda of economic reform called perestroika , or restructuring. These measures were intended to redirect the country's resources from costly Cold War military commitments to more productive areas in the civilian sector. Despite initial skepticism in the West, the new Soviet leader proved to be committed to reversing the Soviet Union's deteriorating economic condition instead of continuing the arms race with the West.
In response to the Kremlin's military and political concessions , Reagan agreed to renew talks on economic issues and the scaling-back of the arms race. Talks went well until the focus shifted to Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, which Gorbachev wanted eliminated. Reagan refused. East—West tensions rapidly subsided through the mid-to-late s, culminating with the final summit in Moscow in , when Gorbachev and George H. In , Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan ,  and by Gorbachev consented to German reunification ,  [ citation not found ] as the only alternative was a Tiananmen Square scenario.
U.S. Intelligence After the Cold War
On 3 December , Gorbachev and George H. Bush declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit. By , the Soviet alliance system was on the brink of collapse, and, deprived of Soviet military support, the communist leaders of the Warsaw Pact states were losing power. In , the communist governments in Poland and Hungary became the first to negotiate the organization of competitive elections.
In Czechoslovakia and East Germany, mass protests unseated entrenched communist leaders. The communist regimes in Bulgaria and Romania also crumbled, in the latter case as the result of a violent uprising. Attitudes had changed enough that U. Secretary of State James Baker suggested that the American government would not be opposed to Soviet intervention in Romania, on behalf of the opposition, to prevent bloodshed. The revolutionary wave swept across Central and Eastern Europe and peacefully overthrew all of the Soviet-style communist states: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria;  [ citation not found ] Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state.
In the USSR itself, glasnost weakened the bonds that held the Soviet Union together,  and by February , with the dissolution of the USSR looming, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its year-old monopoly on state power. Gorbachev's permissive attitude toward Central and Eastern Europe did not initially extend to Soviet territory; even Bush, who strove to maintain friendly relations, condemned the January killings in Latvia and Lithuania , privately warning that economic ties would be frozen if the violence continued.
The Commonwealth of Independent States , created on 21 December , is viewed as a successor entity to the Soviet Union, but, according to Russia's leaders, its purpose was to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics and is comparable to a loose confederation. President George H. Bush expressed his emotions: "The biggest thing that has happened in the world in my life, in our lives, is this: By the grace of God, America won the Cold War. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , Russia drastically cut military spending , and restructuring the economy left millions unemployed.
The Cold War continues to influence world affairs. The post-Cold War world is considered to be unipolar , with the United States the sole remaining superpower. Cumulative U. Further nearly , Americans lost their lives in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In addition to the loss of life by uniformed soldiers, millions died in the superpowers' proxy wars around the globe, most notably in Southeast Asia. However, the aftermath of the Cold War is not considered to be concluded. Many of the economic and social tensions that were exploited to fuel Cold War competition in parts of the Third World remain acute.
The breakdown of state control in a number of areas formerly ruled by communist governments produced new civil and ethnic conflicts, particularly in the former Yugoslavia. In Central and Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War has ushered in an era of economic growth and an increase in the number of liberal democracies , while in other parts of the world, such as Afghanistan, independence was accompanied by state failure.
During the Cold War itself, with the United States and the Soviet Union invested heavily in propaganda designed to influence the hearts and minds of people around the world, especially using motion pictures. The Cold War endures as a popular topic reflected extensively in entertainment media, and continuing to the present with numerous post Cold War-themed feature films, novels, television, and other media.
As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to post-war tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists. Although explanations of the origins of the conflict in academic discussions are complex and diverse, several general schools of thought on the subject can be identified. Historians commonly speak of three differing approaches to the study of the Cold War: "orthodox" accounts, "revisionism", and "post-revisionism".
Covert Action - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the state of political tension in the 20th century. For the general term, see Cold war general term. For the current state of political tension, see Second Cold War. For other uses, see Cold War disambiguation. For other uses, see Cold warrior disambiguation.
Cold War — East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall , Navy aircraft shadowing a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis , American astronaut Thomas P. Stafford and Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov shake hands in outer space , Mushroom cloud of the Ivy Mike nuclear test , ; one of more than a thousand such tests conducted by the US between and Russian , Ukrainian and Belarusian leaders signing the Belavezha Accords , officially dissolving the Soviet Union, Main article: Cold war general term. Main article: Origins of the Cold War.
Main articles: Potsdam Conference and Surrender of Japan. Main article: Eastern Bloc. The labeling used on Marshall Plan aid to Western Europe. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid received per nation. Construction in West Berlin under Marshall Plan aid. Main articles: Cominform and Tito—Stalin Split. Main article: Berlin Blockade. Main article: Cold War — Main articles: Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution of The Hungarian Revolution of Main article: Flexible response.
Main article: Sino-Soviet split. China and pro-Chinese communist states. Neutral communist nations North Korea and Yugoslavia. Non-communist states. Main article: Space Race. Main article: Berlin Crisis of Further information: Berlin Wall and Eastern Bloc emigration and defection. Main article: Brezhnev Doctrine.
Oversight of United States covert operations
Main article: Nixon visit to China. Further information: Reagan Doctrine and Thatcherism. Main articles: Solidarity Polish trade union and Martial law in Poland. Further information: Soviet reaction to the Polish crisis of — Further information: Mikhail Gorbachev , Perestroika , and Glasnost. Main article: Revolutions of Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union.
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