Sharpens problem-solving skills in an active learning lab setting. In-class exercises and weekly assignments lead to a group project. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments and project work. Prereq: None. Coreq: Presents the fundamentals of computing and computer programming procedural and object-oriented programming in an engineering context. Introduces logical operations, floating-point arithmetic, data structures, induction, iteration, and recursion. Computational methods for interpolation, regression, root finding, sorting, searching, and the solution of linear systems of equations and ordinary differential equations.
Control of sensors and visualization of scientific data. Draws examples from engineering and scientific applications. Introduces modern development tools, patterns, and libraries for distributed-asynchronous computing, including Distributed Hash Tables, Merkle trees, PKI encryption and Zero Knowledge Proofs. Prereq: None U Fall units. Provides a practical introduction to key topics, current research and innovative methods in the diverse field of civil and environmental engineering. Discusses career opportunities, innovation, and entrepreneurship.
Under faculty supervision, students work on projects in areas such as renewable energy, sustainable design, food security, climate change, and transportation. Projects focus on design of novel solutions to grand challenges related to infrastructure, systems and the environment, and include elements of the different areas to demonstrate the interconnectedness of the discipline. Preference to first-year students and Course 1 sophomores. Introduction to big engineering problems that span our built infrastructure and natural environment.
Topics promote high-level thinking and basic problem-solving skills for societal problems in domains of civil and environmental engineering. Lectures based on case studies that emphasize key challenges and opportunities in areas of digital cities, cyber-physical infrastructure systems transportation, logistics, power , engineering of natural resources land, water, energy , and sustainable and resilient design under the changing environment.
Students collaborate to identify basic modeling issues, explore analysis tools, and engage in teamwork to discuss the design and implementation of new technologies, policies, and systems in the real-world. Laboratory and field visits illustrate interesting natural phenomena and new engineering applications. Subject can count toward the 9-unit discovery-focused credit limit for first year students. Provides an introduction to global climate change processes, drivers, and impacts. Offers exposure to exciting MIT research on climate change.
Students explore why and how the world should solve this global problem and how they can contribute to the solutions. Introduces probability and causal inference with an emphasis on understanding, quantifying, and modeling uncertainty and cause-effect relationships in an engineering context.
Topics in the first half include events and their probability, the total probability and Bayes' theorems, discrete and continuous random variables and vectors, and conditional analysis. Topics in the second half include covariance, correlation, regression analysis, causality analysis, structural causal models, interventions, and hypothesis testing. Concepts illustrated through data and applications. Prereq: Permission of instructor U Spring units.
Synthesizes prior coursework and experiences through a semester-long design project and related assignments. Students form teams to work on projects of their choosing, focusing in depth on the diverse areas within civil and environmental engineering. Teams demonstrate creativity in applying theories and methodologies while considering their project's technical, environmental and social feasibility. Includes lectures on a variety of related engineering concepts, as well as scholarship and engineering practice and ethics.
Provides instruction and practice in oral and written communication. Same subject as 2. Partial Lab. See description under subject 2. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity. Limited to first-year students. Same subject as 7. Fundamentals of ecology, considering Earth as an integrated dynamic living system. Coevolution of the biosphere and geosphere, biogeochemical cycles, metabolic diversity, primary productivity, competition and the niche, trophic dynamics and food webs, population growth and limiting factors.
Population modeling, global carbon cycle, climate change, geoengineering, theories of resource competition and mutualism, allometric scaling, ecological genomics, niche theory, human population growth. Applied ecology. Introduces a systems approach to modeling, analysis, and design of sustainable systems. Covers principles of dynamical systems, network models, optimization, and control, with applications in ecosystems, infrastructure networks, and energy systems.
Includes a significant programming component. Students implement and analyze numerical models of systems, and make design decisions to balance physical, environmental, and economic considerations based on real and simulated data. Engineering School-Wide Elective Subject. Offered under: 1. See description under subject 3. Prereq: 1.
Provides an introduction to complex networks, their structure, and function, with examples from engineering, applied mathematics and social sciences. Topics include spectral graph theory, notions of centrality, random graph models, contagion phenomena, cascades and diffusion, and opinion dynamics. Covers topics in the characterization and nature of soils as multi-phase materials; the principle of effective stress; hydraulic conductivity and groundwater seepage; shear strength and stability analyses; stress-deformation properties, consolidation theory and calculation of settlements for clays and sands.
Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Introduces the structure and properties of natural and manufactured building materials, including rheology elasticity, fracture mechanics, viscoelasticity and plasticity. Emphasizes effects of molecular and nanoscopic structure and interactions on macroscopic material behavior. Focuses on design of natural and structural materials. Discusses material aspects of sustainable development. Presents principles of experimental characterization techniques. Explores microscopic and macroscopic mechanical approaches to characterize structure and properties of materials.
In laboratory and in-field sessions, students design and implement experimental approaches to characterize natural and building materials and study their interaction with the environment. Familiarizes students with structural systems, loads, and basis for structural design, including analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures trusses, beams, frames, cables, and arches.
Covers mechanical properties of construction materials, including concrete, steel, and composites. Studies concrete and steel structures through application of principles of structural mechanics. Evaluates behavior and design of reinforced concrete structural elements using limit strength design and serviceability principles.
Introduces plastic analysis and design, and load factor design of structural steel members and connections. Team project emphasizes material covered through behavior and problem-based learning. Provides an introduction to soils as engineering materials, including classification and characterization, pore pressures and seepage, principles of effective stress and consolidation, deformation, and shear strength properties.
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Surveys analysis methods, with a focus on slope stability, limiting earth pressures and bearing capacity, and settlements of foundations. Examines applications in the design of earth dams, earth retaining systems, foundations, and staged construction processes. Introduces basic concepts of transportation systems modeling, data analysis and visualization techniques.
Covers fundamental analytical and simulation-based methodologies. Topics include time-space diagrams, cumulative plots, queueing theory, network science, data analysis, and their applications. Provides students with an understanding of the current challenges and opportunities in different areas of transportation. Basic principles of mechanics to describe the behavior of materials, structures and fluids. Dimensional analysis, conservation of momentum, static equilibrium, stress and stress states, hydrostatics, moments and forces.
Material and structural strength criteria. Deformation and strain. Conservation of energy in solid mechanics, elasticity and elasticity bounds. Energy dissipation, plasticity and fracture. Open-ended geotechnical and structural engineering studio exercises and experiments with natural and man-made physical systems. Vandiver, N. Makris, N. Patrikalakis, T. Peacock, D. Gossard, K. Studies strength and deformation of concrete under various states of stress; failure criteria; concrete plasticity; and fracture mechanics concepts.
Topics include fundamental behavior of reinforced concrete structural systems and their members; basis for design and code constraints; high-performance concrete materials and their use in innovative design solutions; and yield line theory for slabs. Uses behavior models and nonlinear analysis. Covers complex systems, including bridge structures, concrete shells, and containments. Same subject as 4. See description under subject 4. Prereq: Permission of instructor U Fall units.
Interdisciplinary, applied introduction to ancient materials and technology. Students explore materials sustainability and durability from multiple perspectives, using ancient societies, architecture and building materials as time-proven examples of innovation in construction. Involves discussions of peer-reviewed literature and cultural heritage, project formulation, data collection, and data analysis. Culminates in presentation of research project s , and write-ups of the research in manuscript form. Examines response of structures to dynamic excitation: free vibration, harmonic loads, pulses and earthquakes.
Covers systems of single- and multiple-degree-of-freedom, up to the continuum limit, by exact and approximate methods. Includes applications to buildings, ships, aircraft and offshore structures. Mechanics principles for incompressible fluids. Review of hydrostatics. Conservation of mass, momentum and energy in fluid mechanics. Flow nets, velocity distributions in laminar and turbulent flows, groundwater flows. Momentum and energy principles in hydraulics, with emphasis on open channel flow and hydraulic structures.
Drag and lift forces. Analysis of pipe systems, pumps and turbines. Gradually varied flow in open channels, significance of the Froude number, backwater curves and kinematic waves. Application of principles through open-ended studio exercises. Meets with 1. Introduction to mass transport in environmental flows, with emphasis on river and lake systems. Covers derivation and solutions to the differential form of mass conservation equations, hydraulic models for environmental systems, residence time distribution, molecular and turbulent diffusion for continuous and point sources, boundary layers, dissolution, bed-water exchange, air-water exchange, and particle transport.
Introduction to mass transport in environmental flows. Covers derivation and solution to the differential form of mass conservation, hydraulic models for environmental systems, residence time distribution, and molecular and turbulent diffusion for continuous and point sources. Same subject as See description under subject Designed for students in engineering and the quantitative sciences who want to explore applications of mathematics, physics and fluid dynamics to infectious diseases and health; and for students in epidemiology, environmental health, ecology, medicine, and systems modeling seeking to understand physical and spatial modeling, and the role of fluid dynamics and physical constraints on infectious diseases and pathologies.
The first part of the class reviews modeling in epidemiology and data collection, and highlights concepts of spatial modeling and heterogeneity. The remainder highlights multi-scale dynamics, the role of fluids and fluid dynamics in physiology, and pathology in a range of infectious diseases. The laboratory portion entails activities aimed at integrating applied learning with theoretical concepts discussed in lectures and covered in problem sets.
Provides an introduction to physical processes occurring in lakes and shallow surface water systems with emphasis on mechanisms affecting fate and transport. Topics include internal waves, differential heating and cooling, boundary mixing, turbulent mixing, and influence of vegetation. Begins with a review of Navier-Stokes equation. Reviews theoretical notions of nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and waves with applications in fluid dynamics. Discusses hydrodynamic instabilities leading to flow destabilization and transition to turbulence.
Focuses on physical turbulence and mixing from homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Also covers topics such as rotating and stratified flows as they arise in the environment, wave-turbulence, and point source turbulent flows. Laboratory activities integrate theoretical concepts covered in lectures and problem sets. Water in the environment; Water resource systems; The hydrologic cycle at its role in the climate system; Surface water and energy balance; evaporation and transpiration through vegetation; Precipitation formation, infiltration, storm runoff, and flood processes; Groundwater aquifers, subsurface flow and the hydraulics of wells.
Develops understanding of numerical modeling of aquifers, groundwater flow and contaminant transport, as well as uncertainty and risk analysis for water resources. Introduces the basic relevant principles and concepts in atmospheric physics, climate dynamics, biogeochemistry, and water and energy balance at the land-atmosphere boundary, through an examination of two current problems in the global environment: carbon dioxide and global warming; and tropical deforestation and regional climate.
An introduction to global environmental problems for students in basic sciences and engineering. Presents the fundamentals of subsurface flow and transport, emphasizing the role of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, the relation of groundwater flow to geologic structure, and the management of contaminated groundwater.
Topics include Darcy equation, flow nets, mass conservation, the aquifer flow equation, heterogeneity and anisotropy, storage properties, regional circulation, unsaturated flow, recharge, stream-aquifer interaction, well hydraulics, flow through fractured rock, numerical models, groundwater quality, contaminant transport processes, dispersion, decay, and adsorption. Includes laboratory and computer demonstrations.
Covers theory and practical methods for the analysis of univariate data sets. Topics include basics of statistical inference, analysis of trends and stationarity; Gaussian stochastic processes, covariance and correlation analysis, and introduction to spectral analysis. Students analyze data collected from the civil, environment, and systems domains. Introduction to statistical multivariate analysis methods and their applications to analyze data and mathematical models.
Topics include sampling, experimental design, regression analysis, specification testing, dimension reduction, categorical data analysis, classification and clustering. Surveys optimization and simulation methods for management of water resources. Case studies illustrate linear, quadratic, nonlinear programming and real-time control. Applications include river basin planning, irrigation and agriculture, reservoir operations, capacity expansion, assimilation of remote sensing data, and sustainable resource development.
Presents the physical, chemical, biological and genetic properties of soils, their global distribution, and response to management. Introduces Earth's different soil types and their classification; links characteristics with contemporary and historic issues surrounding natural and managed soil systems. Emphasizes soil chemical processes controlling the cycling and fate of soil nutrients and contaminants, including chemical equilibria in soils and natural waters, reduction-oxidation, mineral surface chemistry and precipitation-dissolution reactions.
Introduces coupled physical-chemical-biological soil processes that control the transport of porewater constituents. Topics include soil carbon cycling, water and fertilizer management, and challenges associated with soil salinity-sodicity, erosion, and pollution. Students taking graduate version complete a laboratory-based project. Introduces an innovative approach that uses 3D printing and microfluidic technology to characterize and visualize flow in porous media like soils and rocks.
Covers single-phase flow and transport laser fluorescence, particle image velocimetry , capillarity and wettability, multiphase flow, fracturing of granular media. In lab, students work in groups to unravel the physics and chemistry of flow in porous media, with applications to energy and environmental processes, such as groundwater resources, energy recovery, and carbon sequestration.
Enrollment limited; preference to Course 1 majors and Energy Studies minors. Introduces environmental chemistry with a focus on using thermodynamics to understand processes governing chemical behaviors in natural and engineered systems. Process formulations are combined in box models to compare with observations. Covers intermediate topics in environmental chemistry requiring kinetics to understand processes governing biogeochemical behaviors in natural and engineered systems. Topics include atmospheric oxidations, radiochemistry, mass transfers, and catalysis.
Combines an introduction to geochemical modeling, using transport and transformation process formulations in chemical fate models, to compare with observations of concentrations as a function of space and time. Provides a working knowledge of basic air quality issues, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach to investigating the sources and effects of pollution.
Topics include emission sources; atmospheric chemistry and removal processes; meteorological phenomena and their impact on pollution transport at local to global scales; air pollution control technologies; health effects; and regulatory standards. Discusses regional and global issues, such as acid rain, ozone depletion and air quality connections to climate change. Centers on mathematical tools linking external perturbations with the structure and persistence of ecological communities - the ensemble of co-occurring and interacting species.
Focuses on unstructured populations ranging from single, to pairs, to multiple species. Covers population dynamics, species interactions, stability, feasibility, species coexistence, and perturbations. Lectures address phenomenological and mechanistic understanding through graphical, analytical and numerical analysis. Provides a general introduction to the diverse roles of microorganisms in natural and artificial environments. Topics include energetics and growth, evolution and gene flow, population and community dynamics, water and soil microbiology, biogeochemical cycling, and microorganisms in biodeterioration and bioremediation.
Introduction to environmental fieldwork and research, with a focus on data collection and analysis. Subject spans three weeks, including two weeks of fieldwork, and involves one or more projects central to environmental science and engineering. Location varies year-to-year, though recent projects have focused on the island of Hawaii. Limited to Course 1 students. Building on fieldwork and research conducted in 1. Sequence of 1. Limited to Course 1 majors and minors. Students work one-on-one with a CEE graduate student or postdoc mentor on a project that aligns with their research interests.
Previous project topics include transportation networks, structural mechanics, sediment transport, climate science, and microbial ecology. Includes weekly seminar-style talks. Intended for first-year students.
Introduces the creative design process in the context of civil and environmental engineering. In labs, students design and build a working model or an experiment that addresses a specific engineering aspect of their project. In addition to written and oral presentations, students start a web-based portfolio. Satisfies 6 units of Institute Laboratory credit. Enrollment limited; preference to Course 1 majors and minors. Project-oriented subject focused on the principles and practice of engineering design.
Emphasis on construction and deployment of designs, plus performance testing used to determine if designs behave as expected. Includes a major team project involving use and application of sensors, as well as environmentally-friendly, and energy-effective or energy-producing designs. Develops practical, teamwork and communication skills.
Coreq: 1. Fundamentals of mass transport and flow measurement in environmental systems. Topics include analysis of measurement uncertainty, diffusion, dispersion, air-water exchange, dissolution, and porous media flow. Develops communication skills through the writing and revision of formal lab reports and short oral presentations. Enrollment limited; preference to 1-ENG majors. Laboratory and field techniques in environmental engineering and its application to the understanding of natural and engineered ecosystems.
Exercises involve data collection and analysis covering a range of topics, spanning all major domains of the environment air, water, soils, and sediments , and using a number of modern environmental analytical techniques. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Concludes with a student-designed final project, which is written up in the form of a scientific manuscript.
Enrollment limited; preference to 1-ENG. This class will introduce you to the fundamental principles of naval architecture and will examine how they are applied in practice for floating bodies. This class will address the important principles related to marine engineering systems. This class will explain the main activities carried out in a modern shipyard and critically examine the role of management service departments. This class provides you with an introduction to fixed offshore structure design and the material science and properties of the materials used in the marine industry.
Students are introduced to engineering philosophy and practice by a practical experience of design and manufacturing processes and technology applications appropriate to naval architecture and marine engineering. This class will continue on from your mathematics classes in Year 1, further enhancing your mathematical requirements to prepare you for more advanced studies in your course. This module will examine the processes and methods used to design ships and other marine vehicles.
This class provides you with an introduction to the concepts and fundamentals of hydrodynamics. You'll be provided with an introduction to automation and control theory with applications to marine systems. Students learn about the theory and design of pipe flow, heat exchangers, fuel systems, cooling systems etc. This class provides an understanding of the techniques which may be used to analyse the behaviour of marine structural components like steel beams and plates.
An introduction to fluid mechanics as applied to marine hydrodynamics. You'll acquire a broad appreciation of the marine industry and the key factors for successful projects. You'll gain experience of working in teams, representing companies in the marine industry, and preparing a business plan for a proposed new venture. This class will provide you with a demonstration of the important seakeeping characteristics of marine vehicles and explain the factors influencing this behaviour.
This class will introduce you to the theoretical background of marine computational fluid dynamics CFD using the finite volume method. This module will provide you with a theoretical understanding of stiffness and finite element methods for marine structures. The design, operation and management of marine power systems are explored on this class.
Students learn about the various components required to successfully power a ship with regards to safety, minimising environmental impact and economic aspects. You'll gain an understanding of the design, operation and management of marine power transmission systems. Individual project: in this module you'll be given the opportunity to carry out an individual project, under the supervision of a member of academic staff, in a topic area of interest to you.
Group project: The second part of this module involves a group design project. Along with a group of your peers you'll design an engine room for a vessel in which you'll apply previously learnt knowledge of engine room design, marine components and systems selection and integration. The main method of assessment is exams in January and May. Presentations, laboratory reports and other forms of coursework are submitted and marked individually throughout the year.
This is followed by revision classes, private study and exams. Most assignments involve associated tutorials for guidance. Group exercises, including presentations and peer assessment, are an important part of your development. The main methods of teaching are lectures, tutorials, laboratory and group design classes.
You can expect an average of 20 hours of these per week. You should supplement this with self-study. Self-study is important as it develops the confidence to tackle unfamiliar problems. This is an essential skill for professional engineers. Where national or international law requires, the Works Information should include a statement of award criteria for subcontracts. Acceptance of a Subcontractor cannot be withdrawn later, providing his appointment complies with these clauses.
However, in overseas contracts or where the requirements of a particular industry make the NEC subcontracts inappropriate, the Project Manager may accept other subcontract conditions being used see also explanatory notes on Clauses The contract is silent about the Contractor obtaining approval from outside bodies to other aspects of his work such as road closures or access for major items of Equipment.
It is important that these instructions are given within the limits and for the reasons expressly stated. If, for any reason, the Contractor disagrees with an instruction, his remedy is not to refuse to obey the instruction, but to follow the dispute resolution procedure chosen for the contract Option W1 or Option W2.
In most European countries there is considerable legislation relating to health Fo on and safety on construction sites. This legislation is regularly being increased Lo in scope. Generally, the sanctions for non-compliance are criminal in nature as opposed to civil. It is not appropriate or necessary to reproduce or to re S nd summarise this legislation in contract documents. The various parties each have their obligations under statute and the general law.
These requirements are stated in the Works Informa- tion since they affect how the Contractor is to Provide the Works and are in tio a parallel with statutory obligations. These requirements may include such matters as na nk. This can be achieved by setting down the processes to be followed in an Option Z clause.
Especially under Option F, detailed procurement procedures should be stated clearly, preferably in a Z clause. These should include such matters as. Option F: Management contract Providing the Works 20 The effects are shown in the table below. Provision of Site services tio a design two to be done by. Construction and. If this is not done, the work would have to be subcontracted or its price covered by the Fee. Instead, the starting date and the completion date are given in the Contract Data.
The starting date is the date when the Contractor can start work, but not on Site see Clause Both starting date and completion date may be adjusted by agreement before the Contract Date. For many contracts, the period between the starting date and the completion date is decided by the Employer, enabling the completion date to be inserted in the Contract Data before inviting tenders. Alternatively, the completion date may be decided by the tenderers and Fo on submitted as part of their offers. If this is done, Employers should make clear Lo how tenders are to be assessed, indicating the value to be placed on an early re S completion date.
Again in such a case, the basis of assessing tenders should be made clear to ca thb the tenderers.
CV Senior Coating Inspector / Superintendent, Coating Advisor / Coating Condition Surveyor
Even if the extent of the work is uncertain, which na nk may be the case in a cost reimbursable contract, a time should be stated based on a stated assumed amount of work. If this is not done, extension of l u Un time and delay damages provisions cannot be applied. The access se iv dates are stated in the Contract Data. The programme 31 The programme is an important document for administering the contract.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
It enables the Project Manager and Contractor to monitor progress and to assess the time effects of compensation events, including changes to the Completion Date. Employers may wish to have programmes submitted with tenders in order to judge whether a tenderer has fully understood his obligations and whether he is likely to be able to carry out the work within the stated time, using the methods and resources he proposes.
Any doubts on these matters can then be resolved after submission of tenders. Failure to accept a revised programme does not require the Contractor to stop work. The following notes are broadly in the same order as the bullets in the clause. The dates stated in the Contract Data or changed in accordance with the contract see explanatory notes on Clauses The work of the Employer and Others. The dates when the Contractor plans to complete work for which Key Dates apply see explanatory notes on Clause These allowances are owned by the Contractor as du ou part of his realistic planning to cover his risks.
It follows that they should be retained in the assessment of any delay to planned Completion due to tio a the effect of a compensation event. It is normally available to accommodate the l u Un time effects of a compensation event in order to mitigate or avoid any delay to planned Completion.
However, in accordance with Clause Any delay to on esi planned Completion due to a compensation event therefore results in the same delay to the Completion Date. See further explanatory notes on ly ty Clause It is important that the time risk allowances included by the Contractor in a programme submitted for acceptance are realistic. If they are not, the Project Manager may refer to the third bullet of Clause The programme is to show the dates when the Contractor will need access and other things to be provided to him by the Employer and also information from Others. The penultimate bullet of Clause As the work progresses, the statement may be revised to show more detail and any changes he proposes for acceptance by the Project Manager see explanatory notes on Clause The Employer should ensure that the Works Information states the opera- tions for which he requires detailed method statements.
This requirement should be limited to operations where the method of construction and the design of the Equipment to be used are crucial if the design of the works is not to be put at undue risk. Where there is a large amount of Contractor design, it may be appropriate for the Works Information to require an increasing amount of detail to be shown on the programme as the design is developed. Any failure by the Project Manager to accept a programme for reasons other than those noted is a compensation event Clause The Project Manager is required to respond within two weeks, but if the reply is non-acceptance the Contractor is required to re- submit, within the period for reply.
Revising the programme 32 It should record the actual progress achieved on each operation and the repro- gramming of future operations. It should also show the effects of implemented compensation events. The revised programme Lo should also show proposals for dealing with delays, Defects and any changes the Contractor wishes to make. He should be prepared to accept a programme with earlier dates if this is acceptable to the Employer. Access to and use of 33 on esi the Site In many cases it may be possible to ly ty give access to the whole Site on the starting date.
In other cases, particularly where there are several contractors on the Site, this may not be possible. The Contractor must then programme his activities according to the dates when he can have access. The Contractor may not require access on the dates stated in the Contract Data, in which case he should show on his programme the later dates.
These then supersede those in the Contract Data and become obligatory on the Employer. Instructions to stop or not 34 to start work An instruction given constitutes a compensa- tion event Clause In certain circumstances, if the Project Manager fails to instruct the re- start of work within thirteen weeks of instructing work to stop, either Party may be entitled to terminate the contract under Clause If so, this should be stated in the Contract Data.
For example, the work in this contract may be part of a larger scheme such that there is no advantage to the Employer in its early completion.
If the Contract Data is silent on this, the Employer is required to take over the works within two weeks of Completion. If Option X5 is included in the contract and the works are divided into sections, Completion of a section results in the Employer having to take over the section within two weeks of its Completion.
The Employer is then responsible for providing access so that the Contractor can correct Defects, which will include completing outstanding work Clause If the Fo on Lo Project Manager is concerned that delay which has already occurred may result in the Completion Date or a Key Date not being achieved, he can re S nd instruct the Contractor to produce a revised programme under Clause Acceleration cannot be imposed on the Contractor without his agreement. However, the programme may contain more operations than the Activity Schedule has activities. It is also possible that the Activity Schedule contains more activities than the number of operations in the programme.
There should always be correlation between the programme and the Activity Schedule, whether the Accepted Programme is in the Contract Data i. This correlation should be kept up to date as the job proceeds. Correlation is best achieved by adding to the Activity Schedule the relevant programme operation references. Example of good correlation: each activity is made up of whole operations or part of one operation. The actions are the same as when the Project Manager implements a compensation event Clause Options E and F Acceleration 36 These standards provide the basis on which the existence of a Defect is judged Clause Quality systems If quality systems are required in a project, they should be initiated by the Employer at an early stage, such as at the early design stages.
This is a compensation event under Clause Such instructions should specify details of the test. Before payment for or marking of Equipment or Plant and Materials Clause Before delivery to the Working Areas Clause Before Completion. The Works Information should state which tests have to be passed before Completion. The Works Information should state the tests to be passed before these dates.
After take over but before the defects date. In the case of process plants, they may involve production materials which the Employer may need to have under his direct control. It is possible that the completed parts of the works may be put into operation by the Employer before completing his own tests.
This provision does not apply to tests which have to be repeated due to discovery of a Defect. Failure by the Supervisor to carry out his tests promptly is a compensation event Clause Where tests are to be The Works Information should state the location of each test if it is not to be done carried out within the Working Areas. Items which may come into this category include heavy structural units, mechanical and electrical plant, computer and other proprietary equipment.
Who does the test The Works Information should specify who is responsible for carrying out each Fo on test or for arranging for it to be carried out. The choice will be between the Lo following. The Contractor, including his Subcontractors and suppliers. Where the Contractor is to arrange for a test to be carried out by an independent or du ou public authority, the Works Information should include the name of the authority, the tests and the form in which the results are to be supplied.
The Supervisor. The required items may include the following. Samples of materials to be tested. These are normally provided by the Contractor, his Subcontractors or suppliers. Testing apparatus, test loads, measuring instruments. These could be se iv provided by the Employer, the Supervisor or the Contractor including his Subcontractors or suppliers or hired from an independent or public authority.
Testing facilities such as a Site laboratory normally provided by the Contractor but sometimes by the Employer or laboratories off-Site ly ty normally those of an independent company or authority. Services for the tests water, electricity, air, steam, etc. Materials for use in the tests including performance tests — normally provided by the Employer or by a specialist Subcontractor or supplier. Fuel for the tests gas, coal, oil, etc. Provision and disposal of production materials — normally provided or disposed of by the Employer.
Types of tests may include the following. Checking setting out, line, level, verticality. Measuring movements, settlement and soil characteristics in earthworks. Testing the structural, mechanical or pressure resisting strength of Plant, piping systems, structures or other parts of the works. Testing the performance, accuracy and reliability of control systems and associated instruments and servo-mechanisms incorporated in the works.
Testing the reliability, safety and effectiveness of electrical, mechanical and other systems incorporated in the works. Lo The Contractor and Supervisor are each required to give the other advance re S nd notice of tests which each is to carry out. This enables both parties to be fully informed and to take any action they wish to take. If, for example, testing du ou reveals that some work does not comply with the Works Information, early discussion of the consequences is likely to be required.
Any repeat test or inspection of work after a Defect has been corrected is not a compensation event. The early warning procedure Clause 16 requires early discussion of the matter. Possible solutions include changing the Works Information after redesign or accepting the Defect Clause If unnecessary delay occurs a compensation event results Clause Some payments to the Contractor may be conditional upon doing particular tests to show that the work has been carried out satisfactorily.
If the Supervisor causes unnecessary delay, such payments may become due after the defects date whether or not the tests are carried out. There is there- fore no need to have separate clauses in the conditions of contract or add Z clauses to deal with different types of test. Many combinations of tests may be required for process Plant and it is not practical for the conditions of contract to prescribe particular tests. The Employer must state in the Works Information what tests are required see notes on Clause For a typical ECC contracted process Plant the testing regime would be as follows.
Manufacture During manufacture various tests would be carried out in the factory. Erection on site Following erection on site, static alignment, electrical and mechanical re S nd and basic process automation tests stated in the Works Information will be performed Clause If the Plant passes the tests and all other work required to achieve ca thb Completion is done, then take over may proceed.
If the Plant fails then a Defect exists and is corrected Clause After take over After take over, performance tests are carried out also under Clause na nk The Employer and Contractor provide facilities, etc. If the Plant passes, the Contractor has met his obligations in this respect. If Option X17 low performance damages is used and the perfor- mance is low, but within the levels stated in the Contract Data, low ly ty performance damages are paid by the Contractor. If the performance is low and either X17 has not been used, or the failure is outside the limits of X17, a Defect exists and is corrected Clause If the Employer is willing to accept the Defect, a price reduction may be agreed Clause If the Employer is unwilling to accept the Defect and the Contractor cannot correct it, the Project Manager assesses the cost of having the Defect corrected by Others, which is paid by the Contractor Clause It is useful to include in the Works Information a schedule tabulating details of the tests to be done at different stages of the works with cross-references to the relevant sections of the Works Information containing the detailed procedures.
Testing and inspection 41 before delivery A fault in a design provided by the Employer is not a Defect. He may decide to change the design and instruct the Contractor accordingly. This would constitute a change to the Works Information, which would be a further compensation event Clause If the defect is due to non-compliance with the Works Information, it is a Defect and does not result in a compensation event.
Whether or not such tests are compensation events is determined using Clause Normal practice for most civil engineering du ou and construction contracts in the United Kingdom would be a period of 12 months. For process plant, longer periods, commonly 3 years but up to 7 or ca thb even 10 years in special circumstances, may be appropriate. The defects date is the earliest date when the Contractor ceases na nk to be liable under the contract for the correction of Defects. He therefore needs to correct Defects in time to avoid delaying.
In effect, the Contractor is free to decide when he should correct Defects to avoid delaying these dates refer to Figure 3. The defect correction periods, stated in part one of the Contract Data, only affect the timing of correcting Defects after Comple- tion. Provision is made in the Contract Data format for different lengths of defect correction period appropriate for different types of Defect. The length of the defect correction period for each type of Defect to be given in the Contract Data depends on. An example of a high degree of urgency for a Defect to be corrected would be one found after Completion which prevents the Employer from using the works.
The defect correction period for such a Defect should be stated in the Contract Data part one to be short. If the Contractor is then unable to comply, the Employer is allowed to have the Defect corrected by other people and recover the incurred cost from the Contractor see explanatory notes on Clause The purpose of the last sentence re S nd is to preserve the liability of the Contractor for undiscovered Defects. The clause also tio a states that the defect correction period does not start until access and use have been provided. This clause gives a procedure within the contract for accepting a on esi Defect in these circumstances.
Either the Contractor or the Project Manager may propose a change to the Works Information solely to avoid the need to ly ty correct a Defect. The other is not obliged to accept the proposal. In some cases the reduction may be nominal. For example, a nominal price reduction may be acceptable if the effect of the change to the Works Information is not detrimental and if the alternative of correcting the Defect will reduce the likelihood of prompt Completion.
If the quotation is not acceptable, no further action is necessary. If the quota- tion is accepted by the Project Manager, the Works Information, the Prices and the Completion Date are changed accordingly. Such a change to the Works Information is not a compensation event Clause In terms of liability, the consequences are the same as for other changes to the Works Information.
The assessment of the cost of having a Defect corrected by other people does not trigger an assessment under Clause This means that most of such amounts accumulate until the defects date unless there has been Completion of a section of the works and a defect correction period ends before Completion of the whole of the works.
This is one of the reasons for the retention arrangement. Quite a high percentage retention should be set in these circumstances because its main purpose is to cover the cost of dealing with uncorrected Defects after Completion. This may be lower than that assessed in Clause It will re S nd rarely, if ever, be higher, given that the Contractor could also employ Others to correct the Defect in When used in conjunction with the core clauses in Section 5 they establish the payment mechanism for each main Option. The use made of the Prices varies between the main Options.
The effect of a compensation event may be to extend the duration of an activity or group of activities so that its completion is delayed.
CV Senior Coating Inspector / Superintendent, Coating Advisor / Coating Condition Surveyor
The delay may result in a delay to payment if the activity completion occurs after the assessment date by which the activity was originally expected to have been completed. In deciding whether to agree to this, the Project Manager should take account of the extent to which the Contractor is collaborating through the early warning procedure and by keeping the Accepted Programme up to date.
He should also take account of any delays to the activity or overall programme which are Fo on the fault of the Contractor. In this way, the Contractor is paid for the actual quantities of work done, not those in the original bill of quantities. Option B is therefore a re-measurement contract. It on esi can be used for building contracts where re-measurement is not traditional.
Options C and D Option C No re-measurement is involved. Option D The Prices continue to be the basis of the target and the term is used in other clauses of an Option D contract. Options C, D and E The reason for these exclusions is that these amounts are normally deducted from, or not paid to, the Contractor by other provisions of the contract.
In turn, the Contractor may wish to deduct them from his Subcon- tractors. Disallowed Cost and will be spread over all the work in the contract. This has been omitted from the third edition. The l u Un reason is that it is inequitable to the main Contractor in those cases where se iv the subcontract is also under Option C, D or E as the main Contractor must pay the cost incurred plus the Fee, which could be more or less than the quotation. The correction of Defects before Completion is only intended to be a Dis- allowed Cost if the Defect is caused by the Contractor not complying with a constraint on how he is to do the work, for example a prescribed method of working or a constraint on timing of work.
In the sixth main bullet of this clause a rider has been added because some Project Managers have been disallowing the cost of Plant and Materials which the Contractor bought in good faith but then became surplus as the result of a compensation event. Option E Option F It is used to calculate the PWDD and in assessing compensation events. Core clauses Assessing the amount due 50 An additional assessment occurs at Completion of the whole of the works.
All other payments ca thb except advanced payments e. The content of PWDD varies according to which main Option is used see earlier na nk explanatory notes on payment mechanisms. If the Employer does not include within his payment to the Contractor the correct amount of sales tax or VAT, the Contractor should inform the Employer of the error, with a copy to the Project Manager.
The amount of sales tax or VAT unpaid becomes a debt of the Employer. The clause imposes a test to determine whether a quarter of the PWDD should be retained. In this situation an Accepted Programme already exists and no amount can be retained under this clause. If a programme is not submitted, the stated retention amount can be withheld. The test for withholding this retention is one of submission of a programme by the Contractor, not acceptance by the Project Manager. This avoids retention being imposed as a result of a delay by the Project Manager in deciding whether or not to accept the programme.
A different incentive exists on the Contractor to keep the Accepted Programme up to date see Clause However the onus remains on the Project Manager to assess the amount due even if he has not received a submission from the Contractor. Payment 51 The Project Manager should. Currently in the United Kingdom, the additional percentage should be substantial in order to comply with the Late Payment of Commercial Debts Interest Act Simple interest at the interest rate applies for periods less than one year.
A contract which uses Option A is a lump sum contract with the activity schedule showing a break- down of the total lump sum at the Contract Date. The cost of any items the Contractor may have omitted is deemed to be included in the Prices for the other items. There is provision in the conditions for adjusting the Activity Schedule for compensa- tion events and for changes in a planned method of working see Clauses The only other way of changing the Activity Schedule is if the Project Manager accepts a quotation for acceleration Clause The Activity Schedule should include activities such as design tasks and providing Equipment, including temporary works.
There is no automatic provision for payment for Plant and Materials within the Working Areas before they are incorporated into the works, i.
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The required effect can be obtained under Option A by including appropriate items in the Activity Schedule. The special circum- re S nd stances under which payment might be made for Equipment or Plant and Materials which are outside the Working Areas are covered in Section 7. This is how the ECC provides for milestone or stage payments.
At each payment assess- na nk ment date the state of completion of each group of activities is assessed. Only the prices of completed groups are included in the amount due see l u Un further explanatory notes on Clause It cannot be used to determine what the Contractor is to design or build; only to determine payments to the Contractor for what he designs or builds. Thus it is important that the Activity Schedule should relate directly to the programme and always be compatible with it see explanatory notes on Clause For instance, the changed Prices are not reasonably distributed between the activities on the revised Activity Schedule and are instead loaded against certain activities.
The total of the Prices must not be changed except as a result of a compensation event or an acceleration. Option B The Bill of Quantities 55 It cannot be used to determine what the Contractor is to design or build; but only to determine payment to the Contractor for what he designs or builds. If any further records are required, details should be given in the Works Information. Firstly, in the payment due Option D The Prices tendered by a Contractor have the main purpose of establishing the target.
Any delays in assessing compensation events would further distort the calculation. Option C The Activity Schedule 54 For instance, the changed Prices are not reasonably distributed tio a between the activities on the revised Activity Schedule and are instead loaded against certain activities. The total of the Prices must not be changed except na nk as a result of a compensation event or an acceleration.
Options E and F Assessing the amount due 50 Nevertheless, the Fee is paid in the currency of the contract. Clause 62 covers the submission of quotations for compensation events. Clause 63 sets out the rules for assessing the effects of a compensation event time and money. Clause 64 covers assessments made by the Project Manager.
Clause 65 explains how any changed prices or dates are incorporated into the contract. The du ou assessment of a compensation event is always of its effect on the Prices, the Completion Date, and any Key Date affected by the event. Any event may ca thb entitle the Contractor to additional payment and also to additional time. In the case of some events, the results may be reduced payment to the Contractor. Compensation events are listed in the core clauses, the Options and the l u Un Contract Data.
The main list is in the core Clause Events applicable to main Options B and D se iv are stated in Clauses Other compensation events are stated in secondary Option Clauses X2. If he does so, the effect is to take the risk of costs and delay arising ly ty from the event from the Contractor. The event must be described precisely. In such a case it becomes a compensation event through Clause Employers vary as to the policy they wish to adopt towards the risk of industrial disputes. Outside the United Kingdom the legal, cultural or religious climate can also affect policy.
None are applicable generally. The cycle time for tunnel excavation exceeds eight working hours for more than four consecutive cycles for reasons outside the control of the Contractor. The water level in the estuary at Point A rises to more than Work is stopped to allow a ship to pass on more than 24 occasions in a given period. The authority given to the Project Manager for this purpose is in Clause A variation may comprise deletion or addition of work or alteration to work. There may be many reasons for changing the Works Information. They include changes made in order to eliminate an illegality or impossibility Clause 18 or to resolve an ambiguity or inconsistency Clause The clause states two exceptions to a change to the Works Information being a compensation event.
The procedure for accepting a Defect is stated in Clause The clause also gives precedence to the Works Information in part one of the Contract Data over the Works Information in part two of the Contract Data. Thus the Contractor should ensure that the Works Information he prepares and submits with his tender as part two of the Contract Data complies with the requirements of the Works Information in part one of the Contract Data. See also explanatory notes on Clause Provision by the Employer 3 The Works Information should give details of anything, such as Plant and Materials, which the Employer is to provide and of any restrictions on when it is to be provided.
The Contractor is required to include this information on the programme under Clause Stopping work or changing 4 Clause There are several reasons why the Project Manager may give such an instruction, e. He may also vary a Key Date Clause Work of the Employer or 5 The Works Information should give details of the order and timing of work to Others be done by the Employer or Others. Reply to a communication 6 Various periods are given in particular clauses for reply by the Project Manager and Supervisor and a general period for reply is given in the Contract Data.
The obligation to reply within the relevant period is stated in Clause Objects of value 7 The procedure for dealing with objects of value or of historical or other interest found within the Site is stated in Clause Changing a decision 8 The Project Manager and Supervisor are able to change decisions made under the authority given to them in the contract, in the same way as they made their original decisions. Withholding an acceptance 9 Various clauses state reasons why the Project Manager is entitled not to accept a submission or proposal from the Contractor.
If he withholds accep- tance for any other reason, as he is entitled to do under Clause Usually searches are instigated where faulty design, construction or manufacture is suspected. Delayed tests and 11 The testing and inspection work to be carried out by the Supervisor is stated inspections in the Works Information. Under Clause Wherever possible the Works Information should include estimates of the time that the Supervisor needs for any of his tests. Physical conditions The ECC includes an overhauled but not radically different procedure.
This compensation event is limited to those physical conditions which are encountered within the Site and not any other parts of the Working Areas. Since most claims for unforeseen conditions are in respect of ground condi- tions, the more information concerning ground conditions which is made avail- able to tenderers by the Employer, the greater the certainty with which appropriate allowances can be made in tendering.
It is important that the ground information provided is both correct and relevant to the risks faced. It may be advisable also to prepare and provide interpretation of factual data, provided this is prepared by a specialist. In this way tenderers are able to tender on a common basis. This can be done, for example, in tunnel works or extensive foundation works by stating the boundary conditions. This should be done by using Option Z to state boundary conditions covering such matters as. Tenderers will then be able to tender on a common basis, knowing that they must allow in their pricing for the occurrence of physical conditions within the stated boundary conditions.
The last paragraph of Clause